U.S. Army Combatives – FM 3-25.150

3-05 Body Positioning Moves

Section II. BASIC TECHNIQUES

These basic techniques not only teach a fighter to understand dominant body position, but also provide an introduction to a systematic way of fighting on the ground. Almost all types of finishing moves are represented by the simplest and, at the same time, most effective example of the type. Before any time is spent on the more complex and harder to learn techniques presented later in this manual, the fighter must master these basics.

3-5. BODY POSITIONING MOVES

The key to developing good ground fighters is ingraining a feel for the dominant body positions and how they relate to each other.

a. Stand up in Base. This is the most basic technique. It allows the fighter to stand up in the presence of an enemy or potential enemy without compromising his base and thus making himself vulnerable to attack. The principles of body movement inherent in this technique make it so important that leaders should reinforce it every time a fighter stands up

(1) Step 1 (Figure 3-5). The fighter assumes a seated posture resting on his strong side hand with his weak side arm resting comfortably on his bent knee. His feet should not be crossed.

Figure 3-5 Stand up in base, step 1.

Figure 3-5 Stand up in base, step 1.

(2) Step 2 (Figure 3-6). Placing his weight on his strong side hand and weak side foot, the fighter picks up the rest of his body and swings his leg between his two posts, placing his foot behind his strong side hand. It is important that the knee should be behind the same side arm as shown.

Figure 3-6. Stand up in base, step 2.

Figure 3-6. Stand up in base, step 2.

(3) Step 3 (Figure 3-7). After placing his weight on both feet, the fighter lifts his hand from the ground and assumes a fighter’s stance. He holds his hands high to protect his head and face. His fists are clenched, but relaxed. His elbows are close to his body, and his weight is evenly distributed on both feet, creating a stable base. He is light on his feet with his knees slightly flexed to allow quick movement in any direction.

Figure 3-7. The fighter's stance.

Figure 3-7. The fighter’s stance.

b. Escape the Mount, Trap, and Roll. This move starts with the fighter on his back and the enemy mounted on his chest.

(1) Step 1 (Figure 3-8). Using both hands the fighter secures one of the enemy’s arms and places his foot over the same side foot of the enemy, keeping his elbows tucked in as much as possible.

Figure 3-8. Escape the mount, trap, and roll, step 1.

Figure 3-8. Escape the mount, trap, and roll, step 1.

(2) Step 2 (Figure 3-9). The fighter now lifts the enemy straight up with his hips and, because the enemy has neither a hand nor a foot to stop him, he will topple over.

Figure 3-9. Escape the mount, trap, and roll, step 2.

Figure 3-9. Escape the mount, trap, and roll, step 2.

(3) Step 3 (Figure 3-10). As the enemy begins to fall, the fighter turns over, ending within the enemy’s guard.

Figure 3-10. Escape the mount, trap, and roll, step 3.

Figure 3-10. Escape the mount, trap, and roll, step 3.

c. Escape the Mount, Shrimp to the Guard. This move also starts with the fighter on his back and the enemy mounted on his chest. While the fighter is attempting to escape the mount, trap, and roll, he may be unable to capture the enemy’s leg. This occurs when the enemy moves his leg away. This movement, however, creates an opening under the same leg. The term shrimp refers to the action of moving the hips away, which is crucial to the success of this technique.

(1) Step 1 (Figure 3-11). The fighter turns on his side and faces toward the opening created by the enemy, ensuring that his leg is flat on the ground.

Figure 3-11. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 1.

Figure 3-11. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 1.

(2) Step 2 (Figure 3-12). The fighter now uses either his elbow or hand to hold the enemy’s leg in place and brings his knee through the opening.

Figure 3-12. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 2.

Figure 3-12. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 2.

(3) Step 3 (Figure 3-13). When his knee gets past the enemy’s leg, the fighter places his weight on the same leg and turn towards the other side. This action will bring his knee up and create enough space to pull the leg out and place it over the enemy’s leg.

Figure 3-13. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 3.

Figure 3-13. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 3.

(4) Step 4 (Figure 3-14). The fighter now uses his hands to hold the enemy’s other leg in place to repeat the actions from the first side.

Figure 3-14. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 4.

Figure 3-14. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 4.

(5) Step 5 (Figure 3-15). It is important that the fighter lock his feet together around the enemy, placing him in the open guard.

Figure 3-15. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 5.

Figure 3-15. Escape the mount, shrimp to the guard, step 5.

d. Pass the Guard and Achieve the Mount. The fighter is in base within the enemy’s guard. From this position, the fighter must escape from within the enemy’s legs. This action is called passing the guard.

(1) Step 1 (Figure 3-16). The first thing the fighter must do is defend against the front choke by using one hand to pin one of the enemy’s arms to the ground at the biceps. He also keeps an upright posture.

Figure 3-16. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 1.

Figure 3-16. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 1.

(2) Step 2 (Figure 3-17). The fighter then raises his opposite side foot and places it on the ground just out of reach of the enemy’s hand. He turns his hips, creating an opening, and pushes his hand through, fingertips first.

Figure 3-17. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 2.

Figure 3-17. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 2.

(3) Step 3 (Figure 3-18). The fighter then slides down and back until the enemy’s leg is on his shoulder.

Figure 3-18. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 3.

Figure 3-18. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 3.

(4) Step 4 (Figure 3-19). With the same hand, the fighter grasps the enemy’s collar with his thumb on the inside and drives the enemy’s knee straight past his head. Pressure on the enemy’s spine forces him to release his legs.

Figure 3-19. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 4.

Figure 3-19. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 4.

 

Figure 3-19. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 4 (continued).

Figure 3-19. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 4 (continued).

(5) Step 5 (Figure 3-20). The fighter rides the enemy down into side control.

Figure 3-20. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 5.

Figure 3-20. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 5.

 

Figure 3-20. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 5 (continued).

Figure 3-20. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 5 (continued).

(6) Step 6 (Figure 3-21). The fighter faces toward the enemy’s legs and changes his hips, ensuring that his knee is controlling the enemy’s hip, and that his legs are spread out to avoid a reversal.

Figure 3-21. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 6.

Figure 3-21. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 6.

(7) Step 7 (Figure 3-22). The fighter uses his free hand to control the enemy’s legs, and swings his leg over into the mount.

Figure 3-22. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 7.

Figure 3-22. Pass the guard and achieve the mount, step 7.

e. Escape the Half Guard.Frequently the enemy will wrap his legs around one of fighter’s from the bottom. This is called the half guard.

(1) Step 1 (Figure 3-23). The fighter must prevent the enemy from either regaining the guard, or rolling him over. To do this, the fighter must assume a strong position. He should ensure that his elbow is against the side of the enemy’s neck, and he is blocking the enemy from placing his leg under him with his bottom knee.

Figure 3-23. Escape the half guard, step 1.

Figure 3-23. Escape the half guard, step 1.

(2) Step 2 (Figure 3-24). By moving first the toe and then the heel of the captured foot, the fighter “walks” it closer to the enemy’s buttocks.

Figure 3-24. Escape the half guard, step 2.

Figure 3-24. Escape the half guard, step 2.

(3) Step 3 (Figure 3-25). The fighter uses his free hand to push the enemy’s knee until the fighter’s knee is exposed, and then drives it over the enemy until it is on the ground.

Figure 3-25. Escape the half guard, step 3.

Figure 3-25. Escape the half guard, step 3.

(4) Step 4 (Figure 3-26). If the enemy attempts to push against the fighter’s knee with his hand, the fighter places his hand under the enemy’s arm at the bend in his elbow and pushes it upward towards his head.

Figure 3-26. Escape the half guard, step 4.

Figure 3-26. Escape the half guard, step 4.

f. Arm Push and Roll to the Rear Mount. The fighter starts this technique in the front mount.

(1) Step 1 (Figure 3-27). When the enemy attempts to protect his face from punches by crossing his arms over it, the fighter uses both hands to push one arm farther across and captures it in place by using his body weight.

Figure 3-27. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 1.

Figure 3-27. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 1.

 

Figure 3-27. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 1 (continued).

Figure 3-27. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 1 (continued).

 

Figure 3-27. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 1 (continued).

Figure 3-27. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 1 (continued).

(2) Step 2 (Figure 3-28). While keeping control with one hand, the fighter uses the other hand to reach around the enemy’s head and grasp the wrist of the captured hand.

Figure 3-28. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 2.

Figure 3-28. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 2.

(3) Step 3 (Figure 3-29). The fighter now places the first hand on the enemy’s elbow and, by pushing with his chest, turns the enemy onto his stomach. The hand on the elbow is used to hold the enemy in place while the fighter repositions his chest for further pushing.

Figure 3-29. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 3.

Figure 3-29. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 3.

(4) Step 4 (Figure 3-30). The enemy will sometimes use his elbow as a post to avoid being turned to his stomach. When this happens, the fighter brings his weight slightly off of the enemy and uses his hand to pull the elbow under the enemy, pushing him forward onto his stomach.

Figure 3-30. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 4.

Figure 3-30. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 4.

(5) Step 5 (Figure 3-31). From this position the enemy normally tries to rise up and get his knees under him. When he attempts this, the fighter sits up and brings both legs around, “hooking” them inside of the enemy’s legs, and grasps his hands together around the enemy’s chest. One arm should be over the enemy’s shoulder and the other should be under his arm.

Figure 3-31. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 5.

Figure 3-31. Arm push and roll to the rear mount, step 5.

g. Escape the Rear Mount. This technique begins with the fighter face down and the enemy on the fighter’s back in the rear mount.

(1) Step 1 (Figure 3-32). The fighter must first roll over one shoulder so the enemy ends up underneath him, both facing skyward.

Figure 3-32. Escape the rear mount., step 1.

Figure 3-32. Escape the rear mount., step 1.

(2) Step 2 (Figure 3-33). He now places one arm beside his own ear as shown and the other across his body in his armpit. This will prevent the enemy from securing a choke.

Figure 3-33. Escape the rear mount. step 2.

Figure 3-33. Escape the rear mount. step 2.

(3) Step 3 (Figure 3-34). Falling toward the side of his own raised arm, the fighter pushes himself toward his own shoulders using the ground to “scrape ” the enemy off his back.

Figure 3-34. Escape the rear mount, step 3.

Figure 3-34. Escape the rear mount, step 3.

(4) Step 4 (Figure 3-35). Once his back is on the ground, the fighter uses his arms and legs to step over and gain the mount.

Figure 3-35. Escape the rear mount, step 4.

Figure 3-35. Escape the rear mount, step 4.

 

Figure 3-35. Escape the rear mount, step 4 (continued).

Figure 3-35. Escape the rear mount, step 4 (continued).


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